Law vs. Morality and Politics Illustrated by the Example of Bioethical Issues

Law is not autonomous in respect to morality or politics. It is evident when considering the experience of last seven years of bioethical debates in Poland, and legal discussions concerning regulating IVF in particular. The debates prove almost all the weaknesses of legal positivism. Therefore, three interconnected levels of analysis – moral, political and legal – are to be consulted thoroughly before undertaking any legislative efforts. All of them need to have objective foundations. Nonetheless, compromises on the two latter contentious issues are to be legitimately expected in a pluralistic society. Law is only an instrument of interests and values in the hands of experienced politicians. They are to be respected as professionals but found responsible for regulations in force, as politicians are not immune from being subjected to moral evaluation.

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