Freedom of Conscience and Religion in States of Emergency in the Polish Legal System

The aim of this article is to enunciate the legal status of the freedom of conscience and religion of persons and groups under a state of emergency. The paper adopts the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997 as the starting point for discussion. On a general note, considerations pertaining to international law and constitutional regulations in a handful of European countries are presented, with emphasis upon provisions concerning states of emergency. The legal status of freedom of conscience and religion belonging to agents in a state of emergency is expounded by reference to the subjective scope of bindingness of those rights and freedoms which are necessary to promote freedom of conscience and religion. Cases are discussed where a person’s action may be classified as a realization of two constitutional right, one of which is non-derogable. The author goes on to suggest a method of resolving such contentions by applying the theory of practical concordance.

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