42Zapraszamy do lektury kolejnego numeru "Forum Prawniczego", a w nim:


  • Krzysztof Mularski - Orzecznictwo retroaktywne. Szkic problematyki (w świetle wybranych przykładów)
  • Maciej Ślifirczyk - Obejście prawa podatkowego w doktrynie orzeczniczej polskich sądów
  • Tymoteusz Zych - Rozwój nowoczesnych konstrukcji prawnych obywatelstwa i bezpaństwowości w świetle tezy Hannah Arendt o aporetyczności
    oświeceniowej koncepcji praw człowieka
  • Sławomir Piekarczyk - Nieposłuszeństwo obywatelskie i sędziowskie w obliczu kryzysu konstytucyjnego
  • Janusz Roszkiewicz - Prawo nasciturusa do życia w prawie konstytucyjnym i prawie międzynarodowym

41Zapraszamy do lektury kolejnego numeru "Forum Prawniczego". 


  • Małgorzata Korzycka, Walerian Pańko (8 X 1941 - 7 X 1991)


  • Małgorzata Korzycka, Walerian Pańko o własności i posiadaniu
  • Jan Rudnicki, Kształtowanie się prawa pracy a specyfika procesów kodyfikacji i dekodyfikacji prawa w Polsce
  • Nikodem Rycko, Prawo właściwe dla zobowiązań wynikających z naruszenia dóbr osobistych. Uwagi de lege ferenda
  • Maciej Fingas, Prywatne nagranie zawierające oświadczenia uczestników procesu karnego. Zarys problematyki
  • Anna Wolny, Fakultatywne zawieszenie postępowania karnego skarbowego na podstawie art. 114a k.k.s.


  • Paweł Dziwiński, Granice prezydenckiego prawa łaski w świetle metody historycznoprawnej. Na marginesie uchwały Sądu Najwyższego I KZP 04/17

Walerian Pańko – on Ownership and Possession

Walerian Pańko, who originated from the Professor Andrzej Stelmachowski school of agricultural law as his first promoted doctor, developed an innovative concept of understanding ownership as a presumption of general competence to use and dispose of real property. In his work entitled O prawie własności i jego współczesnych funkcjach (Ownership Right and Its Contemporary Functions, Katowice 1984), he stated, that “[…] the crux of ownership right is most simply – and most fully – expressed as the idea of presumed competence”. In his monograph Dzierżawa gruntów rolnych (Agricultural Land Tenure, Warsaw 1975), W. Pańko discussed the problem of “proprietary” protection of the possessor within the context of tenure, stating openly that the process of expansion of possessory protection is an outcome of the crisis of ownership rights. Walerian Pańko has put forward a thesis of pivotal significance for the values protected by the law, that “the strength of ownership right lays in the sensation of real stability, certainty and continuity of law. In protecting the basic value of ownership right, we are not protecting egoistic monopoly, but rather the presumption of exclusivity of the owner”.

Pobierz plik (Korzycka.pdf)Korzycka.pdf261 kB

Formation of the Labor Law and the Processes of Codification and Decodification of Law in Poland

The Polish codification of civil law was completed relatively late. Therefore, the general phenomena that caused the decodification of civil law appeared in Poland even before the final codification itself. The first Polish acts dedicated to regulate labor contracts are prior even to the Code of Obligations of 1933. The Code itself contained some provisions concerning this type of agreement, but their application was very limited due to the existence of the detailed, abovementioned special regulations. The development of the labor law was completed (at least theoretically) by issuing of the Code of Labor Law in 1974. With the eventual loss of any importance within the field of labor relations, civil law became therefore decodified. Moreover, it is obvious, that the labor law has its own axiology, which differs from traditional principles of the civil law. Therefore decodification could mean not only formal separation of special private law provisions from the code, but also the material separation of certain fields of regulation from the civil law in general.

Pobierz plik (Rudnicki.pdf)Rudnicki.pdf247 kB

Law Applicable to Obligations Arising Out of Violation of Personal Rights. Remarks De Lege Ferenda.

The paper deals with the question of the optimal conflict of law regulation for the protection of personality rights in Poland. Three issues are discussed: the question of the optimum objective connecting factor, the question of the choice of the applicable law and the question of the clause of the closest connection. The most appropriate objective connecting factor seems to be the place of damage, understood as the place of the publication of information. The choice of law by the parties should be allowed. This would imply the autonomy of the will, but it would also enhance the certainty of the applicable law. Finally, it seems justified to introduce a clause of the closest connection. This would make it possible to apply the substantive law most closely linked to the situation, and also help to avoid characterisation conflicts.

Pobierz plik (Rycko.pdf)Rycko.pdf317 kB

Private Recording Containing Statements of Participants of the Criminal Process – an Outline of the Issues

The paper analyzes the issue of the admissibility of the use of recordings in criminal trials, on which statements or fragments of conversations of persons who may be heard as an accused or a witness were secretly recorded. Discussing this matter, the author has presented, among others, the case law of civil and criminal courts, the consequences of amending art. 393 § 3 c.c.p., the issue of illegal private evidence (in the light of the regulation of art. 168a c.c.p., as well as constitutional and international law), the question of the possible application of art. 174 c.c.p. in the case of carying out evidence from secret recordings at a trail. Some of the considerations were also devoted to determining whether the conditions under which recordings were made were important, because certain methods of obtaining information, such as torture, should be unacceptable, regardless of whether they are used by a state official or by a private person.

Pobierz plik (Fingas.pdf)Fingas.pdf439 kB

Optional Suspension of Fiscal Penal Proceedings Under Article 114a of the Penal Fiscal Code

The paper discusses the admissibility of the optional suspension of fiscal penal proceedings at the jurisdictional stage on the basis of art. 114a KKS. According to Art. 114a, optional suspension of fiscal penal proceedings is possible if there are significant difficulties in the course of such proceedings due to the conduct of proceedings before fiscal control authorities, tax authorities, customs authorities or administrative courts. It is considered consistent in the doctrine that an optional suspension of fiscal proceedings is admissible at the stage of preparatory proceedings. The discrepancy raises the notion that art. 114a should also be used at the jurisdictional stage, as this provision is seen as an extension of the scope of the exceptions to the principle of the jurisdiction of the courts. Undeniably accepting that the current law provides for the optional suspension of fiscal penal proceedings at the jurisdictional stage in order to await a preliminary ruling may lead, in the author’s view, to a situation where basic procedural guarantees are not respected.

Pobierz plik (Wolny.pdf)Wolny.pdf250 kB

Boundaries of the Presidential Pardon in Poland as Seen by Law and History. A Commentary on the Resolution Declared by the Supreme Court I KZP 04/17

The paper reviews the cohesion of contemporary opinions about the eligibility of giving a pardon to defendants before a final conviction in Poland. It tends to redefine a pardon as a legal institution by Law and History methodology and to confront reasoning indicated by the Supreme Court in the mentioned resolution. The analysis starts with an interpretation of how the art. 139 of the Polish constitution should be read through checking its consistency and finally by presenting historical views on its purpose. Lastly, results of the research are confronted with reasons formed by the Supreme Court to give a final opinion.

Pobierz plik (Dziwinski.pdf)Dziwinski.pdf443 kB
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